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Alexander J. Stein

Economist interested in agriculture, food, nutrition, health, technology, sustainability, economic development & poverty alleviation worldwide. This is a personal account; posts are not necessarily endorsements. More at www.AJStein.de
Oct 19 '14

Opinion: Want to Make a Dent in World Hunger? Build Better Roads - National Geographic (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

When I was a 26-year-old, brand-new American foreign service officer… I was assigned as a district development adviser to eight villages in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. There I learned the professional lesson of my life, one that would be reinforced time after time over the next five decades: Rural roads improve lives. It was 1968, and the Green Revolution… was spreading to Southeast Asia in the form of IR8, a “miracle rice” with a shortened growing cycle.

While agricultural extension agents urged farmers in my district to plant the new IR8 rice, engineers were upgrading the rutted, largely impassable farm-to-market road that linked the eight villages. They finished the road through half of the villages. Everywhere the new road went, farmers began using the new rice with amazing, almost overnight, results.

Farmers could now harvest two crops of IR8 rice per year. Each new crop produced a higher yield than the six-month floating varieties that had been planted for hundreds of years and had provided barely enough grain for subsistence. For the first time, smallholder farmers had a surplus crop and surplus income. Families could now invest in metal sheeting to improve the roofs on their homes and purchase better clothing and more nutritious food for their children. The children stayed in school longer… Child mortality dropped, as mothers with sick children could get them medical attention early enough…

The most amazing change, however, was the impact that the new upgraded road had on security. Villages once beset by insurgents and underground guerrillas now became safe to travel both day and night. As the new road opened the way for commerce, information, and opportunities, young people no longer were enticed to join political military movements and uprisings… 

I told this story to then Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. He… said every one of his commanders in Afghanistan says the same thing: “Where the road ends, the insurgency begins.” When I met Norman Borlaug… I told him that I had been a foot soldier in his Green Revolution and about my experiences with rural roads. When Norm slammed his fist on the table and shouted, “ROADS!” I was filled with apprehension. But he then went into a long exposition about the critical importance of roads. In fact, he had used the money from his 1970 Nobel Peace Prize to build a road in Mexico…  

Today, road penetration in Africa is only about 35 percent. In most other parts of the world, where there are lower rates of hunger and malnutrition, road penetration is 95 percent… ”You can’t take it to the farmer without good roads.”

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141014-fight-poverty-hunger-ambassador-quinn-agriculture-environment-ngfood/


See on news.nationalgeographic.com

Oct 19 '14

The fuzzy numbers on child malnutrition - Livemint (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

Child malnutrition is a national shame. The loud debates about this issue have often drowned out the nuances. Millions of Indian children are malnourished because of a combination of factors ranging from poverty to poor sanitation to inadequate use of micronutrients to lack of gender rights.


The latest global hunger index released by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), a global think tank on food security, has led to premature celebration in India… child malnutrition in India is now identified in the accompanying report as a serious problem while it was earlier described as an alarming one.


Has India really won important battles in the long battle against child malnutrition? The success story reported this week banks heavily on a 12.8 percentage point fall in the proportion of underweight children below the age of five. The third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) said that 43.7% of Indian children below five were underweight. IFPRI has used the results of a Unicef study that was finished this year by the ministry of women and child development; it estimates that 30.7% of children under five are underweight.


At first glance, the Unicef data fits well with the broad trend in India since 2004… However, the biggest concern with the Unicef numbers is that neither are they in the public domain nor have they been accepted… This casts a huge doubt about the validity of these numbers… Even IFPRI does not have the disaggregated data. They have merely used the results…


As such, the 2014 DLHS-4 data, which is publically available, runs counter to the 2011 Hungama number as well as the 2014 Unicef number. Much is made of evidence-based policy these days. The tangle of malnutrition data means that it is too early to draw any firm policy conclusions from the latest hunger index…


The government must release the granular details of the Unicef study it has commissioned if it wants the reported hunger improvements to be taken seriously. Otherwise, it would be difficult to gauge what is more undernourished—India’s children or the government’s data about them.


http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/bgIJC0LykMr6iwAYSUfMNJ/The-fuzzy-numbers-on-child-malnutrition.html


See on livemint.com

Oct 19 '14

Some rice-based foods for people with celiac disease contain relevant amounts of arsenic - SINC (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

Celiac disease affects almost 1% of the population of the western world, a group which cannot tolerate gluten and is thus obliged to consume products without it, such as rice. But this grain, depending on its origin, can also contain worrying levels of arsenic, a toxic and carcinogenic substance.

For the majority of consumers this does not pose any problem because they do not eat much rice every day, but this is not the case for celiac disease sufferers. Researchers from the Miguel Hernández University of Elche (UMH) have analysed the presence of arsenic in flour, bread, sweets, pastas, beers and milk made with rice and intended for this particular group of the population.

The results of the analyses… warn that some of these products contain “important contents” of total arsenic… and inorganic arsenic… The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of the EU established… that there is evidence to suggest that an intake range of 0.3 - 8.0 µg/kg of body weight per day entails a risk of developing lung, skin or bladder cancer. The estimated intakes in the two studies therefore vary within this range… 


“These figures show that we cannot exclude a risk to the health of people who consume these kinds of products”… The researchers’ recommendation is clear: “What is needed is for health agencies to legislate to limit the levels of arsenic that cannot be exceeded in rice-based foods intended for consumers who suffer from celiac disease” … Another important recommendation they make is to include quality information on labels: “The inorganic arsenic content in every food product should be indicated” … 


Arsenic is naturally present in the Earth’s crust, but in some regions its abundance is greater than in others, and its concentration also increases with the use of pesticides. The substance then spreads through water to rice, one of the few plants that is cultivated when flooded… 

http://www.agenciasinc.es/en/News/Some-rice-based-foods-for-people-with-celiac-disease-contain-relevant-amounts-of-arsenic

Original articles: 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12310

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.933491


Alexander J. Stein's insight:

So rice can contain (too much) arsenic and maize can contain (too much) mycotoxins. And while in the latter case e.g. the use of insect-resistant GM maize can help reduce cob damage and thus infestation with mycotoxins, GM crops could also be used to change crop protection practices and thus the use of pesticides, helping reduce arsenic contamination… But at least in Europe (and some other countries) certain vocal interest groups oppose the use of genetic engineering for crop improvement or to improve food safety — at the cost of weaker groups, like those suffering from celiac disease… 


See on agenciasinc.es

Oct 19 '14

Commodity groups turn to science to help shape federal nutrition policy - Capital Press (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

To help shape the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, U.S. commodity groups consider it a top priority to promote and advance science demonstrating the health attributes of their crops and products…

Whether they represent potatoes, almonds, wheat or even sugar, they rely on scientific studies, often producing their own research, to convince a 14-member federal advisory council on nutrition to include their foods in the recommended diet for Americans.

The stakes are high. If the advisers give a commodity its stamp of approval, it could mean millions of dollars in additional sales to federal nutrition programs such as school lunches and through food stamps and nutrition vouchers.

The potato industry has paid especially close attention to the committee’s deliberations, concerned that members have repeatedly used the french fry as a poster child for junk food, and perhaps understated their crop’s nutrient value…

“We’re not going to win the public perception battle that’s generally against potatoes without good, solid scientific research to back up our message and communicate points,” said Blair Richardson, U.S. Potato Board president and CEO and board chairman of the Alliance for Potato Research and Education…

Wheat Foods Council President Judi Adams said her organization is a member of the Grain Chain, which includes 10 grain-related organizations that cooperate to prepare comments for the dietary guidelines advisory committee…. 

The Almond Board of California provided a research summary for the 2015 guidelines committee regarding how almonds help with weight management, diabetes prevention and heart health. The board also submitted a summary about its sustainability efforts…

The National Dairy Council supplies scientific information to the guidelines committee… 

The Sugar Association, the sugar industry’s research arm founded in 1943, also submitted comments to the committee emphasizing foods with added sugars are no more likely to contribute to weight gain than any other sources of calories. The association’s president and CEO… advised reducing overall caloric intake rather than strict limitations on sugar intake… “Sugar makes many healthful foods palatable, which the science confirms is a positive factor in the intake levels of many essential micronutrients”…

http://www.capitalpress.com/Nation_World/Nation/20141016/commodity-groups-turn-to-science-to-help-shape-federal-nutrition-policy


See on capitalpress.com

Oct 19 '14

Food security brings economic growth — not the other way around - Devex (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

Economic growth is only sustainable if all countries have food security. Without a country-owned and country-driven food security strategy, there will be obstacles and additional costs to global-, regional- and country-level economic growth.

Countries with very high levels of poverty and chronic malnutrition face limitations in human capital development, which is required to achieve sustainable growth. High levels of poverty, inequality and chronic malnutrition force governments to invest a significant chunks of their resources in short-term fixes like social safety net programs and conditional cash transfers. High rates of malnutrition can lead to a loss in gross domestic product of as much as 4 to 5 percent… 

Food security not only carries significant benefits for human health, but also serves as the basis to achieve sustained economic growth. That’s why it’s essential that we understand that a food security strategy needs to be seen as more than a single sector issue — it requires a combination of coordinated actions in various sectors. We are talking about actions in finance, agriculture, health and nutrition, infrastructure, and other sectors.

Likewise, economic growth alone will not solve problems like chronic malnutrition and stunting…. a 10 percent increase in economic growth reduces chronic malnutrition by only 6 percent. This asymmetry illustrates that economic growth by itself won’t resolve the problem of chronic malnutrition, which is a key variable in any food security strategy.

Second, we know that economic growth can have negative effects, too. For example, a 10 percent increase in economic growth is correlated with a 7 percent increase in obesity among women. This shows the critical nature of targeting tax and fiscal instruments to optimize the consumption of nutritious foods and minimize the use of foods that cause obesity, another common form of malnutrition… Achieving food security and reducing chronic malnutrition requires additional multisectoral policies aimed at reducing inequalities and targeting vulnerable populations… 


Without stable and long-lasting food security, there will be a continued negative effect on human capital and this will raise government fiscal costs, with negative consequences on government public spending. This also will lead to stagnated economic growth in the long term. Thus, food security is central to both short- and long-term economic growth and it needs to be a central part in a larger cross-sectoral strategy at the national, regional and global levels… 

Finally, we must understand that investments geared toward achieving food and nutrition security must be integrated into the larger public policy debate, particularly in countries facing budgetary restrictions and obstacles to development on multiple fronts… linking these targets with other cross-sectoral programs where the efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditures are held accountable will play a key role in achieving long-term, sustainable economic growth…

https://www.devex.com/news/food-security-brings-economic-growth-not-the-other-way-around-84561


See on devex.com

Oct 19 '14

Modelling impacts of climate change on global food security - Dawson &al (2014) - Climatic Change

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimate that nearly 900 million people on the planet are suffering from chronic hunger… projections of a rapidly growing population, coupled with global climate change, is expected to have significant negative impacts on food security.


To investigate this prospect, a modelling framework was developed… The model uses country-level Food Balance Sheets (FBS) to determine mean calories on a per-capita basis, and a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food across national populations. Calorific values of individual food items in the FBS of countries were modified by revision of crop yields and population changes under the SRES A1B climate change and social-economic scenarios respectively for 2050, 2085 and 2100.


Under a no-climate change scenario… results show that 31 % (2.5 billion people by 2050) of the global population is at risk of undernourishment if no adaptation or agricultural innovation is made in the intervening years. An additional 21 % (1.7 billion people) is at risk of undernourishment by 2050 when climate change is taken into account.


However, the model does not account for future trends in technology, improved crop varieties or agricultural trade interventions, although it is clear that all of these adaptation strategies will need to be embraced on a global scale if society is to ensure adequate food supplies for a projected global population of greater than 9 billion people.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1277-y


See on link.springer.com

Oct 19 '14

China maps out agricultural consolidation plan - China Daily (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

China is rolling out a major rural land reform which aims to promote large-scale farming and consolidate unused small patches of farm land under larger cooperatives. The reform scheme comes as China is experiencing a continuing process of industrialization and urbanization, in which more farmers are migrating to cities for jobs, leaving behind their contracted farm lands over which they have use rights. ”More and more farmers see agriculture as a secondary job… Some lands are even left unattended”… 


The transition has triggered rising concerns over food security facing the world’s most populous country. The key solution is to promote the concentrated use of farm lands, nurture diversified agricultural businesses, and ensure that agriculture is also a profitable business… ”The transfer of rural land use rights as well as concentrated agricultural development is a significant issue for China’s rural development. It is also a key agenda in China’s deepening of rural reforms”… 


The number of Chinese migrant workers from rural regions in 2013 reached almost 270 million, which accounted for 45 percent of the total work force in rural areas. Meanwhile, 170 million migrant workers spent more than six months outside their hometowns last year… Rural land transfer has also sped up in recent years. As of the end of June this year, 380 million mu (25 million hectares) of rural arable land had been transferred, which accounted for 28.8 percent of the nation’s total contracted arable land by farmers, up 20 percentage points compared to year 2008.


"As more lands are transferred, farmers who remain in the fields have more land to manage. This creates an opportunity for them to introduce advanced agricultural technologies and equipment, paving the way for modern agriculture" … In China, urban land is owned by the state and rural land is normally under collective ownership. While gradual reforms since the 1980s saw the trading of urban land evolve into a vigorous property market, land in the countryside has remained largely static as farmers mostly have rights to use, but cannot directly trade or mortgage them.

"In most regions, the time is actually already ripe for farmers to transfer their land use rights"… However, there are challenges in carrying out the reform, in terms of how to protect farmers’ land rights, enhance management of land transfer and offer support to new farmers… 


http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2014-10/18/content_18763950.htm


See on chinadaily.com.cn

Oct 16 '14

New study on Indian government health insurance scheme shows significant reduction in mortality among the poor - World Bank (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Food Policy

A government program to provide health insurance for catastrophic illness to households below the poverty line in Karnataka, lowered both mortality rates and out-of-pocket expenses for the residents… The program is implemented by the Karnataka government with support from the World Bank Group.

An evaluation of the program… found that: The risk of dying from conditions covered by the insurance dropped by 64 percent for residents with the insurance. Out-of-pocket health expenditures for hospitalizations due to the covered conditions dropped by 60 percent… 

The free insurance covered specific high-impact medical conditions – such as heart disease and cancer – which poor residents often die from because they are unable to pay for the necessary expensive treatments. .. 

“The results of this study are important to India as it makes choices on how to make progress towards universal health coverage… The program shows how purchasing health services for the poorest can both improve health and provide protection from impoverishment due to out-of-pocket payments for health care” … 

“The study shows that public policy can play a strong role in reducing disparities in health due to socio-economic status. In villages without insurance, the poor had much higher mortality than the rich, but such disparities were completely eliminated in villages with insurance coverage” … 

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/10/08/new-study-indian-government-health-insurance-reduction-mortality-among-poor


See on worldbank.org

Oct 8 '14

Farm tech isn’t a war between good and evil – it’s a quest for whatever works - Grist (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Ag Biotech News

The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) issued a call for a “paradigm shift towards sustainable agriculture and family farming” …  What FAO… said was that we should be making agriculture more sustainable by any means that can work: agroecology, climate-smart farming, biotechnology, and, yes, GMOs. “We need to explore these alternatives using an inclusive approach based on science and evidences, not on ideologies” … 

This may provoke cognitive dissonance in North America, but only because we have a muddled vision of agriculture. We’re used to thinking of two separate and oppositional forms of farming: One that uses technology to suppress nature, and another that works in low-tech harmony with nature. But in reality, it’s not two separate paths – it’s a spectrum. There are farms that use all sorts of high technology to stay in sync with natural cycles, and even the best low-tech organic farmers find themselves fighting nature every year. Poor farmers trying to support their families don’t experience this cognitive dissonance. It only makes sense that they would want the tools and techniques that will give them the best chance of success.

The argument for better agricultural technology often starts by saying that we need to produce more food to feed the world. I think that’s backward. Instead, we need good technology to help small farmers get out of poverty… it’s politics, not lack of agricultural technology, that causes famines… Access to technology as one of the entitlements people need to insure their livelihood. Small farmers need technology to break out of the cycle of poverty. This technology can take the form of agronomic practices, or it can arrive as high-tech, high-yielding seeds. Often it’s both, working hand in hand…

The point is, for most farmers, the choice is not between technology and ecology. Instead, they figure out what combination of technologies and techniques work best for them. “It’s about optimization… There are very few things in this world that work best if they are all one way or all the other.” This does not mean, however, that all technologies go hand in hand with good sustainable agriculture… There is a tendency for the use of one technology to trigger the need for another and another… But that doesn’t mean we have to abandon technology. We can tweak it… Instead of trying to abstain from agricultural technologies, poor farmers are better off if they look for smart ways to integrate the best technologies into ecological practices… 

http://grist.org/food/farm-tech-isnt-a-war-between-good-and-evil-its-a-quest-for-whatever-works/


See on grist.org

Oct 8 '14

A Case for Stronger Protection of Intellectual Property in Agricultural Biotechnology; Comparing the United States, India, and Argentina - Becker (2014) - Drake U

See on Scoop.it - Ag Biotech News

Overall, the agricultural biotechnology industry is a risky and high cost industry, but with the proper investment and protections on that investment, it can be very profitable. The industry can also solve some of the world’s largest problems, including how to feed a growing populations and middle class. Also, with proper intellectual property protection, the industry may try harder to branch out from the current focus to solve other problems that it does not currently focus on. 


There is a current disconnect throughout the world regarding intellectual property rights for agricultural biotechnology. There is much variation starting in the developed countries, which tend to have very strong intellectual property rights, down to the developing and least developed countries… This is seen in the model countries analyzed here, in the United States, India, and Argentina.

The United States sees itself as the model for intellectual property rights, and was the driving force in implanting basic minimum intellectual property rights in the TRIPS agreement. India, as a developing country has intellectual property protections for processes of making agricultural products, as well as protections for plant varieties. There are, however, still questions as to whether India is in compliance with the TRIPS agreement, as it does not allow product patents on living organisms. Argentina is on the opposite spectrum of intellectual property rights from the United States.  Argentina does not currently allow patents on biotechnology, with limited protections on plant varieties. Both India and Argentina allow the agricultural biotechnology traits to be used by the farmer in a secondary manner such as reusing the seed, even if there is a contract and a patent on the technology.


These three countries are a perfect tool for analysis, as they represent a broad spectrum of intellectual property rights in this arena; they are three of the largest agriculture markets in the world; and they all allow the use of genetically modified plants in agriculture.

Many commentators note that stronger intellectual property rights in agricultural biotechnology will bring large foreign investments into developing countries. This article outlines three major reasons why this should be… First, there is an economical argument, where investment is not possible in situations where corporations are not given protection to their huge investments that are full of risk. Second, there is a scientific argument that this technology has the same inventive process as any other subject matter allowed to be patented in most countries. Third, the allowance of strong intellectual property rights helps countries to invest in resource wealthy nations using regional genetic resources to solve local problems…  

http://works.bepress.com/james_becker/1/


See on works.bepress.com

Oct 8 '14

Facilitating transparent and tailored scientific discussion about animal feeding trials as well as in vitro and in silico approaches for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants - Schiema…

See on Scoop.it - Ag Biotech News

The added value of animal feeding trials as well as in vitro and in silico approaches with whole food/feed for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants (GMPs) is a matter of persistent public debate when assessing the environmental and health risks. In the frame of two EU-funded projects (GRACE and G-TwYST) and several projects funded by European Member States (e.g., the French project GMO90+), 

animal feeding trials as well as in vitro and in silico approaches with whole GM food/feed are performed. To explore the added value of close cooperation and to reconsider the design, execution and interpretation of animal feeding trials as well as in vitro and in silico approaches, the above-mentioned projects agreed on exchanging material and data and are performing subchronic, chronic and carcinogenicity studies with two GM events in a highly coordinated manner. Other European research projects to investigate the added value of animal feeding trials for GMP risk assessment are invited to exchange material and data with us too. We, the coordinators of the projects… agreed on a coordinated publication strategy to increase the transparency of our studies and—in addition to the stakeholder involvement activities in our own projects—to invite stakeholders to discuss the data generated by our projects in the frame of a scientific debate in an open-access journal…  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1375-7 ;
See on link.springer.com

Oct 8 '14

Strengthening the engagement of food and health systems to improve nutrition security: Synthesis and overview of approaches to address malnutrition - Fanzo (2014) - Global Food Sec

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

The nutritional status of populations often serves as a proxy for the world’s wider progress and setbacks. Currently, we are facing a crisis: a double burden of both undernutrition and overweight and obesity compounded with food insecurity in many countries. In an increasingly globalized world and interconnected food system, subjected to the pressures of growing populations, climate variability and food price volatility, no country or population is immune to the challenges…


We now have more information, both in science and in practice, on how to improve the global food system. The solutions are inherently trans-sectoral, engaging practitioners and experts across agriculture, rural development and public health. Improvements can be driven by resilient food system approaches to ensure better utilization of food and dietary diversity and quality. Strengthening food systems should be complemented with engagement of the public health and the water, sanitation and hygiene systems to ensure adequate food and nutrition security, health and wellbeing for all.


http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.09.001


See on sciencedirect.com

Oct 8 '14

Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production - Chaplin-Kramer &al (2014) - Proc R Soc B

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

Pollinators contribute around 10% of the economic value of crop production globally, but the contribution of these pollinators to human nutrition is potentially much higher. Crops vary in the degree to which they benefit from pollinators, and many of the most pollinator-dependent crops are also among the richest in micronutrients essential to human health… 


Regional differences in the pollinator dependence of crop micronutrient content… reveals overlaps between this dependency and the severity of micronutrient deficiency in people around the world. As much as 50% of the production of plant-derived sources of vitamin A requires pollination throughout much of Southeast Asia, whereas other essential micronutrients such as iron and folate have lower dependencies, scattered throughout Africa, Asia and Central America.


Micronutrient deficiencies are three times as likely to occur in areas of highest pollination dependence for vitamin A and iron, suggesting that disruptions in pollination could have serious implications for the accessibility of micronutrients for public health…

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1799


See on rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org

Oct 8 '14

Gene selection can produce orange corn rich in provitamin A for Africa, U.S. - Purdue U (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

Researchers have identified a set of genes that can be used to naturally boost the provitamin A content of corn kernels, a finding that could help combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries and macular degeneration in the elderly… Researchers found gene variations that can be selected to change nutritionally poor white corn into biofortified orange corn with high levels of provitamin A carotenoids - substances that the human body can convert into vitamin A. Vitamin A plays key roles in eye health and the immune system, as well as in the synthesis of certain hormones…

Vitamin A deficiency causes blindness in 250,000 to 500,000 children every year, half of whom die within a year of losing their eyesight… The problem most severely affects children in Sub-Saharan Africa, an area in which white corn, which has minimal amounts of provitamin A carotenoids, is a dietary mainstay. Insufficient carotenoids may also contribute to macular degeneration in the elderly, a leading cause of blindness in older populations in Europe and the U.S.

Identifying the genes that determine carotenoid levels in corn kernels will help plant breeders develop novel biofortifed corn varieties for Africa and the U.S. The dark orange color of these corn varieties also makes them more culturally acceptable to consumers in African countries where yellow corn is generally fed only to animals… Previous research… identified two genes that contribute to provitamin A carotenoid levels in corn kernels, but “we wanted more cookies in the jar for breeders to pick from”… They uncovered four genes that had not previously been linked to carotenoid levels in corn kernels… 

"We now have the genetic information needed to begin developing a major public-private sector collaboration with the goal of providing orange corn with high levels of provitamin A to farmers throughout Sub-Saharan Africa"… Varieties of orange corn are currently being grown in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Nigeria and Ghana… 

http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2014/Q4/natural-gene-selection-can-produce-orange-corn-rich-in-provitamin-a-for-africa,-u.s..html


Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Interesting that the maize may also be marketed in the US — so there is a potential market for biofortified crops in rich countries. (Which might also justify that royalties on vitamin-A rich “Golden Rice” are only waived for poor farmers in developing countries; should the crop be cultivated in/for the US to be sold for profit to richer consumers, those who invested in the underlying research might well get their share of the cake. For humanitarian use it’ll remain free.) 


See on purdue.edu

Oct 8 '14

Infographics: Fish for Nutrition and Food Security - WorldFish (2014)

See on Scoop.it - Global Nutrition

Infographic - Fish - Zinc - Iron- Vitamin A - Calcium - Hidden hunger - Africa

http://www.worldfishcenter.org/news-events/infographics-fish-nutrition-and-food-security


See on worldfishcenter.org